Nowadays, the term islamic Fiqh is generalized to mean Islamic sciences or Islamic rulings in the broad sense. The broad meaning of Islamic rulings is broken up into three fundamental categories:
1. Theology; what is obligatory for a mukallaf to believe about Allah, his angels, books, messengers and the Day of Judgment.
2. Ethics; the positive traits that a mukallaf must obtain and the negative traits that he must stay away from.
3. Actions; the actions that a mukallaf must perform.
This is proved by the tradition from the prophet (s) who said: “Whoever wants Allah to treat him favorably must have a deep understanding (yafqahu) in religion.
Here, the word fiqh is used in its general sense, synonymous of Islam.
When the different sciences are categorized the term fiqh is used to mean the Islamic rulings regarding one's actions.
Fiqh, in its specific meaning and what is discussed in books of fiqh, includes everything that has to do with all aspects of man's life. Everything that is studied today including foundational laws, city management, family relations, individual actions, management, politics, etc is found in the different sections of fiqh.
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